Archive for the ‘30’s Singers’ Category

Pearl Bailey

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Bailey circa 1960
Born Pearl Mae Bailey
March 29, 1918
Southampton County, Virginia, U.S.
Died August 17, 1990 (aged 72)
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
Cause of death Arteriosclerotic coronary artery disease
Occupation Actress, singer
Years active 1936–1989
Spouses John Randolph Pinkett (m. 1948–52)
Louie Bellson (m. 1952–90)
Pearl Mae Bailey (March 29, 1918 – August 17, 1990) was an American actress and singer. After appearing in vaudeville, she made her Broadway debut in St. Louis Woman in 1946. She won a Tony Award for the title role in the all-black production of Hello, Dolly! in 1968. In 1986, she won a Daytime Emmy award for her performance as a fairy godmother in the ABC Afterschool Special, Cindy Eller: A Modern Fairy Tale.

Her rendition of “Takes Two to Tango” hit the top ten in 1952. She received the Screen Actors Guild Life Achievement Award in 1976 and the Presidential Medal of Freedom on October 17, 1988.
Early life

Bailey was born in Southampton County in southeastern Virginia, to the Reverend Joseph James and Ella Mae Bailey. She was raised in the Bloodfields neighborhood of Newport News, Virginia.

She made her stage-singing debut when she was 15 years old. Her brother Bill Bailey was beginning his own career as a tap dancer, and suggested she enter an amateur contest at the Pearl Theatre in Philadelphia. Bailey won and was offered $35 a week to perform there for two weeks. However, the theatre closed during her engagement and she was not paid. She later won a similar competition at Harlem’s famous Apollo Theater, and decided to pursue a career in entertainment.
Bailey, costumed in the role of Butterfly, gauges the applause following her performance of the song “It’s A Woman’s Prerogative”, July 5, 1946. Sustained applause required her to take another bow
Career

Bailey began by singing and dancing in Philadelphia’s black nightclubs in the 1930s, and soon started performing in other parts of the East Coast. In 1941, during World War II, Bailey toured the country with the USO, performing for American troops. After the tour, she settled in New York. Her solo successes as a nightclub performer were followed by acts with such entertainers as Cab Calloway and Duke Ellington. In 1946, Bailey made her Broadway debut in St. Louis Woman. For her performance, she won a Donaldson Award as the best Broadway newcomer. Bailey continued to tour and record albums in between her stage and screen performances. Bailey’s most important Broadway role was as Dolly Levi in the all-black version of Hello Dolly! Early in the television medium, Bailey guest starred on CBS’s Faye Emerson’s Wonderful Town. She hosted her own variety series on ABC, The Pearl Bailey Show (Jan.-May 1971).

Her support of female impersonator Lynne Carter led him to credit Bailey with launching his career.
Bailey in a 1968 Ed Sullivan Show performance.
In 1967, Bailey and Cab Calloway headlined an all-black cast version of Hello, Dolly! The touring version was so successful, producer David Merrick took it to Broadway where it played to sold-out houses and revitalized the long running musical. Bailey was given a special Tony Award for her role and RCA Victor made a second original cast album. That is the only recording of the score to have an overture which was written especially for that recording.

A passionate fan of the New York Mets, Bailey sang the national anthem at Shea Stadium prior to game 5 of the 1969 World Series, and appears in the Series highlight film showing her support for the team. She also sang the national anthem prior to game 1 of the 1981 World Series between the New York Yankees and Los Angeles Dodgers at Yankee Stadium.

During the 1970s she had her own television show, and she also provided voices for animations such as Tubby the Tuba (1976) and Disney’s The Fox and the Hound (1981). She returned to Broadway in 1975, playing the lead in an all-black production of Hello, Dolly! She earned a B.A. in theology from Georgetown University in Washington, D.C., in 1985, at age 67.

Later in her career, Bailey was a fixture as a spokesperson in a series of Duncan Hines commercials, singing “Bill Bailey (Won’t You Come Home)”.

In her later years Bailey wrote several books: The Raw Pearl (1968), Talking to Myself (1971), Pearl’s Kitchen (1973), and Hurry Up America and Spit (1976). In 1975 she was appointed special ambassador to the United Nations by President Gerald Ford. Her last book, Between You and Me (1989), details her experiences with higher education. On January 19, 1985, she appeared on the nationally-televised broadcast of the 50th Presidential Inaugural Gala, the night before the second inauguration of Ronald Reagan. In 1988 Bailey received the Presidential Medal of Freedom from President Reagan.

Personal life
Daughter Dee Dee Bellson, 1999
On November 19, 1952, Bailey married jazz drummer Louie Bellson in London. They adopted a child, Tony, in the mid-1950s, and subsequently a girl, Dee Dee J. Bellson, born April 20, 1960. Tony Bellson died in 2004, and Dee Dee Bellson, at age 49, died July 4, 2009, five months after her father, Louie Bellson, who died on Valentine’s Day 2009.

Bailey, a Republican, was appointed by President Richard Nixon as America’s “Ambassador of Love” in 1970. She attended several meetings of the United Nations and later appeared in a campaign ad for President Gerald Ford in the 1976 election.

She was awarded the Bronze Medallion (New York City award) in 1968.

Death

Pearl Bailey died at Thomas Jefferson University Hospital in Philadelphia on August 17, 1990. Following an autopsy, Dr. Emanuel Rubin, professor and chairman of the Department of Pathology at Jefferson Medical College, announced the cause of death as arteriosclerotic coronary artery disease with significant narrowing of the coronary artery. She is buried at Rolling Green Memorial Park in West Chester, Pennsylvania.

In popular culture

Seth MacFarlane, creator of television’s Family Guy and American Dad!, paid tribute to Pearl Bailey in American Dad!, where the high school that Steve Smith attends is called Pearl Bailey High School.

Performances

Film
Variety Girl (1947)
Isn’t It Romantic? (1948)
Carmen Jones (1954)
That Certain Feeling (1956)
St. Louis Blues (1958)
Porgy and Bess (1959)
All the Fine Young Cannibals (1960)
The Landlord (1970)
Tubby the Tuba (1975) (voice)
Norman… Is That You? (1976)
The Fox and the Hound (1981) (voice)
Television
The Pat Boone Chevy Showroom (prior to 1960)
Mike and Pearl (1968)
Carol Channing and Pearl Bailey: On Broadway (1969)
The Pearl Bailey Show (1971)
(midseason replacement series)
The Love Boat (1977)
All-Star Salute to Pearl Bailey (1979)
The Member of the Wedding (1982)
As the World Turns (cast member in 1982)
Peter Gunn (1989) (unsold pilot)
The Muppet Show (1979)
Theater
St. Louis Woman (1946) (Broadway)
Arms and the Girl (1950) (Broadway)
Bless You All (1950) (Broadway)
House of Flowers (1954) (Broadway)
Les Poupées de Paris (1962) (Off-Broadway) (voice only)
Call Me Madam (1966) (Melodyland Theater)
Hello, Dolly! (1967)
(Broadway and US national tour)
Hello, Dolly! (1975) (Broadway)
Discography

Pearl Bailey Entertains (1950)
Birth of the Blues (1952)
Cultured Pearl (1952)
I’m with You (1953)
Say Si Si (1953)
Around the World with Me (1954)
Carmelina (1955)
The Intoxicating Pearl Bailey (1956)
The One and Only Pearl Bailey Sings (1956)
Gems by Pearl Bailey (1958)
Porgy & Bess, original motion picture soundtrack (1959)(Grammy Award winner)
Pearl Bailey A-Broad (1959)
Pearl Bailey Sings for Adults Only (1959)
Pearl Bailey Plus Margie Anderson Singing the Blues (1960?)
More Songs for Adults Only (1960)
For Adult Listening (1960)
Naughty But Nice (1960)
Songs of the Bad Old Days (1960)
Pearl Bailey Sings the Songs of Harold Arlen (1961)
Come On, Let’s Play with Pearlie Mae (1962)
Happy Sounds (1962)
All About Good Little Girls and Bad Little Boys (1963)
C’est La Vie (1963)
Les Poupées de Paris (1964)
Songs By James Van Heusen (1964)
The Risque World of Pearl Bailey (1964)
For Women Only (1965)
The Jazz Singer (1965)
Hello, Dolly! (1967 Broadway cast)
After Hours (1969)
Pearl’s Pearls (1971)

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Lena Horne

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Publicity photo of Horne from her own stage show Nine O’Clock Revue, 1961
Background information
Birth name Lena Mary Calhoun Horne
Born June 30, 1917
Bedford–Stuyvesant, Brooklyn, New York, U.S.
Died May 9, 2010 (aged 92)
Manhattan, New York, U.S.
Genres Broadway, traditional pop, vocal jazz
Occupations Singer, dancer, actress, activist
Instruments Vocals
Years active 1933–2000
Labels MGM, RCA Victor, United Artists, Blue Note, Qwest/Warner Bros. Records
Associated acts Harry Belafonte, Tony Bennett, Vic Damone, Judy Garland, Duke Ellington, Billy Strayhorn, Billie Holiday, Sammy Davis Jr., Barbra Streisand, Teddy Wilson, Cab Calloway, Noble Sissle, Ralph Cooper
Lena Mary Calhoun Horne (June 30, 1917 – May 9, 2010) was an American singer, dancer, actress, and civil rights activist.

Horne joined the chorus of the Cotton Club at the age of 16 and became a nightclub performer before moving to Hollywood, where she had small parts in numerous movies, and more substantial parts in the 1943 films Cabin in the Sky and Stormy Weather, because of the Red Scare and her political activism, Horne found herself blacklisted and unable to get work in Hollywood. Her career spanned over 70 years appearing in film, television, and on Broadway.

Returning to her roots as a nightclub performer, Horne took part in the March on Washington in August 1963, and continued to work as a performer, both in nightclubs and on television, while releasing well-received record albums. She announced her retirement in March 1980, but the next year starred in a one-woman show, Lena Horne: The Lady and Her Music, which ran for more than three hundred performances on Broadway. She then toured the country in the show, earning numerous awards and accolades. Horne continued recording and performing sporadically into the 1990s, disappearing from the public eye in 2000.

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Doris Day

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Doris Mary Ann Kappelhoff
April 3, 1922 (age 93) or April 3, 1924 (age 91)
Cincinnati, Ohio, U.S.
Nationality United States
Occupation Actress, singer, animal rights activist
Years active 1939–present
1948–1973 (acting)
Religion Christian Scientist
Spouses Al Jorden (m. 1941–43)
George Weidler (m. 1946–49)
Martin Melcher (m. 1951–68)
Barry Comden (m. 1976–81)
Children Terry Melcher (1942–2004)
Website dorisday.com
Doris Day (born Doris Mary Ann Kappelhoff; April 3, 1922 or 1924) is an American actress, singer, and animal rights activist.

Day began her career as a big band singer in 1939. Her popularity began to rise after her first hit recording “Sentimental Journey”, in 1945. After leaving Les Brown & His Band of Renown to embark on a solo career, Day started her long-lasting partnership with Columbia Records, which remained her only recording label. The contract lasted from 1947 to 1967 and included more than 650 recordings, making Day one of the most popular and acclaimed singers of the 20th century. In 1948, after being persuaded by songwriters Sammy Cahn and Jule Styne and by Al Levy, her agent at the time, she auditioned for film director Michael Curtiz, which led to her being cast as the female lead in Romance on the High Seas.

Over the course of her career, Day appeared in 39 films. She was ranked the biggest box-office star, the only woman appearing on that list in the era, for four years (1960, 1962, 1963 and 1964), ranking in the top 10 for ten years (1951–52, and 1959–66). She became the top-ranking female box-office star of all time and is currently ranked sixth among the top 10 box office performers (male and female), as of 2012. Day received an Academy Award nomination for her performance in Pillow Talk, won three Henrietta Awards (World Film Favorite), and received the Los Angeles Film Critics Association’s Career Achievement Award. In 1989, she received the Cecil B. DeMille Award for lifetime achievement in motion pictures. She made her last film in 1968.

She received the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award and a Legend Award from the Society of Singers. In 2011, she released her 29th studio album, My Heart, which debuted at No. 9 on the UK Top 40 charts. As of January 2014, Day is the oldest living artist to score a UK Top 10 with an album featuring new material.

Her strong commitment to animal welfare began in 1971, when she co-founded Actors and Others for Animals. She started her own non-profit organization in the 1970s, the Doris Day Animal Foundation and, later, the Doris Day Animal League (DDAL). Establishing the annual observance Spay Day USA in 1995, the Doris Day Animal League now partners with The Humane Society of the United States and continues to be a leading advocacy organization. In 2004, she received the Presidential Medal of Freedom from President George W. Bush in recognition of her distinguished service to the country. Day is retired from acting and performing, but has continued her work in animal rights and welfare causes.

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Dina Shore

Frances Rose Shore
Born February 29, 1916
Winchester, Tennessee, U.S.
Died February 24, 1994 (aged 77)
Beverly Hills, California, U.S.
Genres Pop
Occupations Singer, actress
Instruments Vocals
Years active 1937–1994
Associated acts Doris Day, Buddy Clark, Tony Martin, Frank Sinatra, Loretta Lynn
Website Dinah Shore’s Fansite
Dinah Shore (born Frances Rose Shore; February 29, 1916 – February 24, 1994) was an American singer, actress, television personality, and the top-charting female vocalist of the 1940s. She reached the height of her popularity as a recording artist during the Big Band era of the 1940s and 1950s, but achieved even greater success a decade later, in television, mainly as hostess of a series of variety programs for Chevrolet.

After failing singing auditions for the bands of Benny Goodman and both Jimmy Dorsey and his brother Tommy Dorsey, Shore struck out on her own to become the first singer of her era to achieve huge solo success. She had a string of 80 charted popular hits, spanning the years 1940 to 1957, and after appearing in a handful of feature films went on to a four-decade career in American television, starring in her own music and variety shows from 1951 through 1963 and hosting two talk shows in the 1970s. TV Guide magazine ranked her at #16 on their list of the top fifty television stars of all time. Stylistically, Shore was compared to two singers who followed her in the mid-to-late 1940s and early 1950s, Doris Day and Patti Page.

Grandpa Jones

Louis Marshall Jones
Also known as Grandpa Jones
Born October 20, 1913
Niagara, Kentucky, U.S.
Origin Akron, Ohio, U.S.
Died February 19, 1998 (aged 84)
Nashville, Tennessee, U.S.
Genres country, bluegrass, gospel, old-time
Occupations Singer-songwriter, musician
Instruments banjo, acoustic guitar
Years active 1932–1998
Labels MCA
Associated acts Hee Haw, Minnie Pearl, David “Stringbean” Akeman, Bradley Kincaid
Louis Marshall Jones (October 20, 1913 – February 19, 1998), known professionally as Grandpa Jones, was an American banjo player and “old time” country and gospel music singer. He is a member of the Country Music Hall of Fame.

Andy Williams

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Howard Andrew Williams
Born December 3, 1927
Wall Lake, Iowa, U.S.
Died September 25, 2012 (aged 84)
Branson, Missouri
Genres Traditional pop
Occupations Singer, actor, record producer
Years active 1938–2012
Labels Cadence, Columbia
Associated acts The Williams Brothers
Howard Andrew “Andy” Williams (December 3, 1927 – September 25, 2012) was an American popular music singer. He recorded forty-four albums in his career, seventeen of which have been Gold-certified and three of which have been Platinum-certified. He hosted The Andy Williams Show, a television variety show, from 1962 to 1971, and numerous television specials. The Moon River Theatre in Branson, Missouri is named after the song he is most known for singing—Johnny Mercer and Henry Mancini’s “Moon River”.

Sammy Davis Jr.

Davis Jr.
December 8, 1925
Harlem, New York, U.S.
Died May 16, 1990 (aged 64)
Beverly Hills, California, U.S.
Cause of death Throat cancer
Resting place Forest Lawn Memorial Park in Glendale, California
Occupation Singer, tap dancer, actor, pianist, drummer, comedian
Years active 1933–90
Religion Judaism
Spouses Loray White (m. 1958–59)
May Britt (m. 1960–68)
Altovise Davis (m. 1970–90)
Children 4
Parents Sammy Davis Sr.
Elvera Sanchez
Website www.sammydavis-jr.com
Samuel George “Sammy” Davis Jr. (December 8, 1925 – May 16, 1990) was an American entertainer. Primarily a dancer and singer, he was also an actor of stage and screen, musician, and impressionist, noted for his impersonations of actors, musicians and other celebrities. At the age of three Davis began his career in vaudeville with his father and Will Mastin as the Will Mastin Trio, which toured nationally. After military service Davis returned to the trio. Davis became an overnight sensation following a nightclub performance at Ciro’s (in West Hollywood) after the 1951 Academy Awards. With the trio, he became a recording artist. In 1954, he lost his left eye in a car accident, and several years later, he converted to Judaism.

Davis’s film career began as a child in 1933. In 1960, he appeared in the first Rat Pack film, Ocean’s 11. After a starring role on Broadway in 1956’s Mr Wonderful, he returned to the stage in 1964’s Golden Boy. In 1966 he had his own TV variety show, The Sammy Davis Jr. Show. Davis’s career slowed in the late 1960s, but he had a hit record with “The Candy Man” in 1972 and became a star in Las Vegas, earning him the nickname “Mister Show Business”.

As an African-American during the pre-Civil Rights era, Davis was a victim of racism throughout his life and was a large financial supporter of the Civil Rights movement. Davis had a complex relationship with the black community, and drew criticism after physically embracing President Richard Nixon in 1972. One day on a golf course with Jack Benny, he was asked what his handicap was. “Handicap?” he asked. “Talk about handicap — I’m a one-eyed Negro Jew.” This was to become a signature comment, recounted in his autobiography, and in countless articles.

After reuniting with Sinatra and Dean Martin in 1987, Davis toured with them and Liza Minnelli internationally, before he died of throat cancer in 1990. He died in debt to the Internal Revenue Service, and his estate was the subject of legal battles.

Davis was awarded the Spingarn Medal by the NAACP and was nominated for a Golden Globe Award and an Emmy Award for his television performances. He was the recipient of the Kennedy Center Honors in 1987, and in 2001, he was posthumously awarded the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award.

Petula Clark

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Petula Sally Olwen Clark
Born 15 November 1932 (age 83)
Epsom, Surrey, England
Genres Popular music, theatre, film
Occupations Actress, composer, vocalist
Years active 1939–present
Labels Polygon
Vogue
Pye
Imperial
Decca
EMI
Warner Bros.
MGM
Columbia
Petula Sally Olwen Clark, CBE (born 15 November 1932) is an English singer, actress and composer whose career has spanned seven decades.

Clark’s professional career began as an entertainer on BBC Radio during World War II. During the 1950s she started recording in French and having international success in both French and English, with such songs as “The Little Shoemaker”, “Baby Lover”, “With All My Heart” and “Prends Mon Cœur”. During the 1960s she became known globally for her popular upbeat hits, including “Downtown”, “I Know a Place”, “My Love”, “A Sign of the Times”, “I Couldn’t Live Without Your Love”, “Colour My World”, “This Is My Song” and “Don’t Sleep in the Subway”. The timing and popularity of these songs caused Clark to be dubbed the First Lady of the British Invasion. She has sold more than 68 million records throughout her career.

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Hank Williams

Hiram King Williams
Also known as
Luke the Drifter The Hillbilly Shakespeare The Singing Kid
Born September 17, 1923
Butler County, Alabama, United States
Died January 1, 1953 (aged 29)
Oak Hill, West Virginia, United States
Genres
Country Western honky-tonk folk blues gospel
Occupations
Singer-songwriter musician
Instruments
Vocals guitar
Years active 1937–1953
Labels
Sterling MGM
Associated acts
Drifting Cowboys Audrey Williams
Website
www.hankwilliams.com

A signature penned in black ink
Williams’ signature
Hiram King “Hank” Williams, (/hæŋk wɪljəmz /; September 17, 1923 – January 1, 1953) was an American singer-songwriter and musician. Regarded as one of the most significant and influential American singers and songwriters of the 20th century, Williams recorded 35 singles (five released posthumously) that would place in the Top 10 of the Billboard Country & Western Best Sellers chart, including 11 that ranked number one.

Born in Mount Olive, Butler County, Alabama, Williams moved to Georgiana, where he met Rufus Payne, a black street performer who gave him guitar lessons in exchange for meals or money. Payne had a major influence on Williams’ later musical style, along with Roy Acuff and Ernest Tubb. During this time, Williams informally changed his name to Hank, believing it to be a better name for country music. He moved to Montgomery and his music career began there in 1937, when WSFA radio station producers hired him to perform and host a 15-minute program. He formed as backup the Drifting Cowboys band, which was managed by his mother, and dropped out of school to devote his time to his career.

When several of his band members were conscripted into military service during World War II, Williams had trouble with their replacements and was dismissed by WSFA due to his alcoholism. Williams eventually married Audrey Sheppard, who managed him for nearly a decade. After recording “Never Again” and “Honky Tonkin'” with Sterling Records, he signed a contract with MGM Records. In 1948 he released “Move It on Over”, which became a hit, and also joined the Louisiana Hayride radio program. One year later, he released a cover of “Lovesick Blues”, which carried him into the mainstream of music. After an initial rejection, Williams joined the Grand Ole Opry. He was unable to read or notate music to any significant degree. Among the hits he wrote were “Your Cheatin’ Heart”, “Hey, Good Lookin'”, and “I’m So Lonesome I Could Cry”.

Several years of back pain, alcoholism, and prescription drug abuse severely damaged Williams’ health; he divorced Sheppard and was dismissed by the Grand Ole Opry, which cited unreliability and frequent intoxication. Williams died in the early morning hours of January 1, 1953, at the age of 29, from heart failure exacerbated by pills and alcohol. Despite his short life, Williams has had a major influence on 20th century popular music, especially country music. The songs he wrote and recorded have been covered by numerous artists, and have been hits in various genres. He has been inducted into multiple music halls of fame, such as the Country Music Hall of Fame (1961), the Songwriters Hall of Fame (1970), and the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame (1987). His son, Hank Williams, Jr., daughter Jett Williams, grandson Hank Williams III, and granddaughters Holly Williams and Hilary Williams are also country musicians.

Bing Crosby

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Harry Lillis Crosby, Jr.
May 3, 1903
Tacoma, Washington, U.S.
Died October 14, 1977 (aged 74)
Alcobendas, Madrid, Spain
Cause of death Heart attack
Resting place Holy Cross Cemetery, Culver City, California, U.S.
Occupation Singer, actor
Years active 1926–1977
Home town Spokane, Washington
Religion Roman Catholic
Spouses
Dixie Lee (m. 1930–52)
Kathryn Grant (m. 1957–77)
Children
Gary Crosby
Dennis Crosby
Phillip Crosby
Lindsay Crosby
Harry Crosby
Mary Crosby
Nathaniel Crosby
Family
Larry Crosby (brother)
Bob Crosby (brother)
Denise Crosby (granddaughter)
Gregory Crosby (grandson)
Musical career
Genres Traditional pop, jazz
Labels
Columbia
Victor
Brunswick
Decca
Capitol
Verve
Associated acts
The Rhythm Boys
Paul Whiteman
Bob Hope
The Andrews Sisters
Rosemary Clooney
Louis Armstrong
Frank Sinatra
Fred Astaire
Website bingcrosby.com
Harry Lillis “Bing” Crosby, Jr. (May 3, 1903 – October 14, 1977) was an American singer and actor. Crosby’s trademark warm bass-baritone voice made him the best-selling recording artist of the 20th century, having sold over one billion records, tapes, compact discs and digital downloads around the world.

The first multimedia star, from 1931 to 1954 Crosby was a leader in record sales, radio ratings, and motion picture grosses. His early career coincided with technical recording innovations such as the microphone. This allowed him to develop a laid-back, intimate singing style that influenced many of the popular male singers who followed him, including Perry Como, Frank Sinatra, and Dean Martin. Yank magazine recognized Crosby as the person who had done the most for American G.I. morale during World War II and, during his peak years, around 1948, American polls declared him the “most admired man alive”, ahead of Jackie Robinson and Pope Pius XII. Also in 1948, the Music Digest estimated that Crosby recordings filled more than half of the 80,000 weekly hours allocated to recorded radio music.

Crosby won an Academy Award for Best Actor for his role as Father Chuck O’Malley in the 1944 motion picture Going My Way, and was nominated for his reprise of the role in The Bells of St. Mary’s opposite Ingrid Bergman the next year, becoming the first of four actors to be nominated twice for playing the same character. In 1963, Crosby received the first Grammy Global Achievement Award. He is one of the 22 people to have three stars on the Hollywood Walk of Fame (a star for motion pictures, radio, and audio recording).

Crosby also exerted an important influence on the development of the postwar recording industry. He became the first performer to pre-record his radio shows and master his commercial recordings onto magnetic tape. Through the medium of recording, Crosby constructed his radio programs with the same directorial tools and craftsmanship (editing, retaking, rehearsal, time shifting) used in motion picture production, which became the industry standard. In addition to his work with early tape recording, he helped to finance the development of videotape, bought television stations, bred racehorses, and co-owned the Pittsburgh Pirates baseball team.

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